We sincerely hope that you enjoy reading and learning from this article about 6 Geological Wonders of India. To be certain, the sites chosen for inclusion herein represent only the smallest beginning of the natural marvels to be found in this part of the world.
It’s our hope, however, that these particular 6 Geological Wonders of India serve to whet your appetite to know more. Every region of the globe has its own beauty, of course, but this region seems to have been especially blessed. So, sit back and let the experience begin!
Loktak Lake Facts
- Leading off this article about 6 Geological Wonders of India is the remarkable body of water known as Loktak Lake.
- This magnificent body of water known easily constitutes one of those locations that will mesmerize and astound you. That’s because, astoundingly, this truly remarkable lake in fact remains very much unlike other lakes throughout the world.
- It can make this claim, furthermore, for several completely different reasons. Some of these occur quite directly. Others, meanwhile, in an indirect manner. First of all, the marvelous geological feature holds several directly occurring claims to fame.
- For starters, this breathtaking body ranks as the largest known freshwater lake in its particular portion of the globe. It also boasts an incredible array of unique and fascinating, free-floating composite features known as phumdis within its boundaries.
- Indirectly, however, the site also remains important within its region of the world. Due to a naturally occurring combination of location and coincidence, it represents the last known refuge for an endangered animal species known as the Sangai.
- Loktak Lake also forms an important economic function in the region. Many local fisherman rely on it, and it serves as a source of hydroelectric power. Quite fortunately for those who appreciate Nature, efforts to preserve the region remain underway.
- Partly due to the presence of the phumdis, the southeastern section of the lake now forms the Keibul Lamjao National Park. This itself easily distinguishes the location from anywhere else in the world. It’s the only floating national park in the world.
Loktak Lake Physical Description
To the surprise of some, the most remarkable thing about Loktak Lake isn’t simply its sheer physical size. This marvel of geology nevertheless does rank as a moderately large freshwater body. This also holds especially true given the area in which it formed.
Understandably, its dimensions naturally vary over its extent, like virtually all lakes. Certain measurements of the impressive body, however, remain possible. For starters, the marvelous geological feature has a maximum measured length of roughly 22 mi (35 km).
The truly amazing location also has a maximum measured width equaling about 8 mi (13 km). These dimensions give the natural wonder an overall roughly oblong shape. The magnificent site also has a total surface area measuring roughly 111 sq mi (287 sq km).
The wonderful Loktak Lake, for all its incredible splendor, may surprise you with yet another physical characteristic, however. That’s the measured depth of its waters. That’s because, for a lake of its other dimensions, one stands out as hard to believe.
This bold statement holds true, nonetheless. The fact holds true due to the fact that its maximum measured depth of reaches a mere 15.1 ft (4.6 m). The average depth of the unique body only equals a meager 8.9 ft (2.7 m). Nature truly loves to astonish us with its variety.
Loktak lake Location, Formation, and Ecology
The fabulous location of the exotic marvel of Nature called Loktak Lake may come as no surprise to some of you. That’s because the natural wonder formed in a region already filled with countless other wonders of the natural world. It therefore fits perfectly.
That’s due to the fact that it lies in the region now known as the country of India, in Asia. More specifically, it formed in the northeastern part of the land. In addition to everything else, this site owes its formation to the actions of not one, but two local rivers.
These sources bear the local names of the Barak River and the Manipur River. Much like the lake itself, these further have a gentle slope, and often meander through their flow patterns. The site also has a highly convoluted drainage system, much like the roots of a tree.
The area in which Loktak Lake formed has a monsoon climate, and receives copious amounts of rainfall. As a result, it boasts an impressive array of plant life adapted to living in water. In fact, its biological diversity includes a total of 233 known species of aquatic plants.
Doubtless the remarkable phumdis, floating islands made of soil, plants, and organic matter, remain the best known, however. But, the remarkable list of life the area does not stop there. Many avians thrive here. In fact, a total of 57 types of waterbirds live around it.
Along with these, 28 varieties of migrating waterfowl, and 14 species wetland birds also appear. A total of 249 known species of vertebrates, and 176 types of invertebrates also inhabit the surrounding terrain. The best known of these remains the Endangered Sangai.
Saint Mary’s Islands
Saint Mary’s Islands Facts
- Our next selection to include among these 6 Geological Wonders of India is the collective grouping known as the Saint Mary’s Islands.
- The term applied to this site represents one of the common names for a quite lovely grouping of four small islands. Somewhat surprisingly, this set of islets also goes by two other common names. Those remain Coconut island and Thonsepar.
- Which name one chooses to use makes no difference to the astounding visual appeal of the location. That holds true partly because the wonder of Nature possesses great natural beauty. But it also boasts some remarkable geological formations.
- This stunning location also has its place in history. The first recorded mention of these four beautiful islands occurred in the year 1498. At that time, the noted Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama landed there, on his journey from Portugal.
- Consequently, the gorgeous Saint Mary’s Islands derives its name from this event. Upon landing, the explorer named one of the islands O Padrão de Santa Maria. Over time, this became modified, as well as applied to the entire grouping collectively.
- In modern times, the location now lists as a National Geological Monument in the country it formed in. This action took place in 2016. Along with the other monuments, it represents an important site for what’s now known as geotourism.
Saint Mary’s Islands Physical Description
Despite their great beauty, the marvelous Saint Mary’s Islands remain relatively small. In point of fact, largest of these continues to be the most notable of the group. It has a roughly rectangular shape, measuring roughly 1,640 ft (500 m) long and 328 ft (100 m) wide.
Each of the other members of the fantastic grouping measures significantly less in area. Like the largest one, known as Coconut Island, these align themselves approximately with the coastline. Each also has multiple types of remarkable geology to offer the visitor.
Firstly, all of the members of Saint Mary’s Islands possess beautiful, naturally occurring terraces. Secondly, each of them further holds numerous small but lovely beaches. Uniquely, though, the majority of these have a decidedly uplifted nature to them, adding to their allure.
However, the most remarkable feature belongs solely to Coconut Island. That’s due to the fact that this particular one boasts some impressive geological formations. These consist of astounding basaltic formations, having an incredible hexagonal structure.
Saint Mary’s Islands Location, Geology, and Ecology
The marvel of Nature now collectively know as Saint Mary’s Islands formed in a moderately remote and isolated region of the world. It’s also a portion of the globe often known for its great natural beauty, and sometimes, to some people, even its distinctive air of mystery.
This stunning discontinuous small island chain formed in the area of the world now called the Arabian Sea. More specifically, the grouping of islets lies off the coast of the country of India, in Asia. There, it lies near the port of Malpe, located in the state of Karnataka.
Geological evidence indicates that the site formed around 60 million years ago. This activity took place during the Cretaceous-Eocene period. It further happened as a direct result of massive outpourings of lava. This specific lava also had a comparatively high ratio of basalt.
Some portions of this cooled in a manner sufficient to create the distinctive hexagonal structures for which its known. Others, however, led to the creation of step-like terraces. This tendency can be seen in the extremely flat, low-slung nature of the islands.
The flora of the islands remains more abundant than the fauna, though both appear to be sufficient. The plant life mainly consists of several varieties of trees, with coconut trees being the most numerous. Others, such as vines and shrubs also appear, however.
Meanwhile, though less prevalent, several varieties of animals do make their home on Saint Mary’s Islands. The vast majority of these, though, consist of different types of birds. Among these, creatures such as kites, various egrets, and the occasional crow are the most common.
Hogenakkal Falls Facts
- Next up within this listing of 6 Geological Wonders of India is the breathtaking site known as Hogenakkal Falls.
- Remarkably, the incredibly stunning natural formation, well known in the region, represents a particularly distinctive and ruggedly beautiful waterfall. In the primary language of the region this hard to pronounce name means smoking rock.
- This magnificent example of the variety of nature also goes by another name, however. That’s because local inhabitants also refer to it as Marikottayam. This site has also long played an important role in the culture and life of the inhabitants of the region.
- For starters, that’s because of the fact that it has long served as a site for bathing. The amazing site also now plays a relatively vital economical role in the area. This holds true due to the fact that the waterfall now constitutes a popular tourist attraction.
- The fabulous Hogenakkal Falls also holds yet another role of importance in the area in which it formed. The site therefore has far more to offer the local population than just its scenic value. This occurs because of a proposal made by the local government.
- Under this proposal, the falls, sometimes called the Niagara Falls of its region, would also provide an invaluable service. Its flow would be used as a source of much needed drinking water for the inhabitants of the immediate area surrounding the falls.
Hogenakkal Falls Physical Description
Perhaps most notably, the breathtaking Hogenakkal Falls has a truly unique structure to it. In this manner, this fascinating site immediately distinguishes itself from the majority of other waterfalls to be found throughout the world, for more than just beauty.
That’s because, instead of a simple plunge, or group of plunges, it has a different construction. That’s due to the fact that it actually consists of a series of channels of varying sizes. These remarkable structures further total 14 in all, each with a different pattern.
That’s because the drop in height for each channel remains different from the others. In point of fact, these vary quite significantly in terms of height. Some of them drop no more than 15 ft (4.6 m). Others, however, have a drop measuring as much as 65 ft (19.8 m).
The most distinctive feature of the remarkable Hogenakkal Falls nevertheless remains a highly unusual one. That’s the very rocks through which it flows. That’s holds true due to the fact that these unusual formations have a fascinating composition.
Composed of carbonatite, these play a vital role in the distinctiveness of the site. This holds true due to the fact that these structures are some of the oldest rocks on the continent. This nature only serves to earn its place among our 6 Geological Wonders of India.
Hogenakkal Falls Location, Source, and Importance
The supremely mesmerizing natural formation known as Hogenakkal Falls formed in an area of the world that remains well known for its incredible natural beauty. That’s due to the fact that the cascade formed in what now constitutes the country of India, in Asia.
More precisely, the remarkable waterfall sits about 79 mi (127 km) from the city of Bangalore in Karnataka. Located in the southern portion of the country, the incredible cascade further formed on a section of the Kaveri River, itself a site of natural beauty.
The exact spot on which the stunning work of Nature sits holds yet another surprise for people. It actually borders two separate districts of the vast country. The two distinct areas within whose boundaries it lies are the districts of Chamrajnagar and Dharmapuri.
The locally important river itself also originates near a site known as Talakaveri. This particular location has long been considered a holy site by the local populace, and sits in the Western Ghats. From there, it quickly gathers force as it drops in elevation.
Highly numerous small tributaries also add to its volume as it flows downward. This continues, in fact, until it reaches Hogenakkal Falls. Along the way another trait manifest. The flow of the water after the cascade carries large quantities of sediment downstream.
As it deposits this, it serves to make the land more fertile, allowing for the successful growing of crops. Further on, it spreads out over numerous sandy beaches. Finally, it reaches the Mettur Dam, and forms the Stanley Reservoir, built in the year 1934.
Borra Caves Facts
- Here we present the next location in this compendium of 6 Geological Wonders of India, the fabulous Borra Caves.
- Most impressively, the incredible location with the simple name ranks as one of the largest known caves in the country in which it formed. Its wonders don’t end there, however. The truly magnificent site also holds yet another impressive status.
- That’s because the fabulous site ranks as the deepest known cave in that same country. Quite surprisingly, this natural marvel of geology also sits at an usually high altitude. Though unknown, of course, such a combination nonetheless qualifies as unusual.
- The local indigenous population, furthermore, long knew of the presence of the natural marvel. In fact, they knew of its existence for countless centuries prior to its discovery by Europeans. Extensive archaeological evidence pointing to this fact exists.
- The caves first became known to outsiders, however, in 1807. This fortuitous discovery occurred as an accidental result of a geological survey of the country. William King George came across the site in the process of conducting that survey.
- Finally, this truly fabulous natural site also has yet one more reason to stand out. This one, though, comes in the form of a sociological importance. That’s because the Borra Caves also plays an important role in the religious beliefs of the local population.
- As part of these local beliefs, the native residents hold several legends revolving around the astounding caves. In fact, this even extends to the construction and maintenance of a small temple outside its opening, built at a currently undetermined date.
Borra Caves Physical Description
Perhaps most notably of all, the endlessly amazing Borra Caves extend for a relatively great distance. That’s due to the fact that they have a total length measuring about 660 ft (200 m) in total. In fact, that’s an impressive measurement for a natural formation of this type.
The site also boasts a remarkably large opening. This measures roughly 330 ft (100 m) in width, and about 246 ft (75 m) in total height. Furthermore, this well known and always fascinating site also boasts numerous natural features, especially stalactites and stalagmites.
The wondrous stalactites range in length from 0.3 – 11.5 ft (0.1 – 3.5 m) in length. Meanwhile, the equally marvelous stalagmites have an average length of 3.9 ft (1.2 m). The stunning location also boasts even more magnificent features to dazzle the observer, though.
That’s because the awesome site also contains numerous fascinating limestone columns. These comparatively massive features average roughly 20 ft (6 m) in height and about 2.5 ft (0.75 m) in overall width. But the marvels of the Borra Caves do not simply stop there.
Nature, it seems, worked to create multiple wonders in this location. In point of fact, the surrounding area consists largely of impressive mica formations. Due to the unique nature of this site, numerous precious stones also appear within the mica, including rubies.
Borra Caves Location, Formation, and Ecology
Remarkably, the magnificent Borra Caves formed in the same part of the world as the other sites on our list. This marvel of Nature formed on what now represents the East Coast of the country of India. Herein, it blends in perfectly with many other natural wonders.
Rather more specifically, this geological wonder formed in what is now the Ananthagiri hills, in the district of Andhra Pradesh. The Gosthani River, more precisely, created the incredible site. That’s true because it actually originates within the caves, before flowing onward.
In fact, the flowing water, over countless thousands of years, carved the caves as they exit now. It did this through its inexorable actions against the relatively soft limestone of the region. That’s not an uncommon pattern of formation, but here it’s taken to another level.
While it may seem like an inhospitable location, a multitude of life actually teems within the boundaries of the Borra Caves. For one thing, several species of fauna inhabit the caves. These mainly, but not solely, include various types of bats, and the golden gecko.
But, this seemingly miraculous location also serves as home to several varieties of very tiny crustaceans, however. Very strong evidence further indicates that this fantastic site was known to ancient man, in the quite distant past, as well as modern humans.
This holds true due to the facts uncovered by numerous expeditions to the site. As a result of these, researchers discovered numerous archaeological artifacts within the confines of the caves. To their amazement, some of these date back roughly 50,000 years.
Lonar Lake Facts
- The 5th location chosen to appear in this compilation of 6 Geological Wonders of India is the gorgeous site known as Lonar Lake.
- Perhaps most importantly, the stunning body of water remains an extremely rare type of geological feature. That’s because the site in fact represents one of only four known examples of lakes formed from a highly specific combination of factors.
- This simple fact alone sets it apart from most lakes. Due to its highly unique nature, furthermore, the government of the region it formed in assigned it a special status. The incredible site now holds the classification of a National Geo-heritage Monument.
- This action, one would think, should serve to provide the remarkable lake with a measure of protection. A great and relatively heated debate, however, currently rages among geologists. This situation occurs concerning the exact age of Lonar Lake.
- It began because some scientists estimate that the body of water formed around 52,000 years ago. Others, meanwhile, believe its formation actually occurred roughly 570,000 years ago. The degree of discrepancy understandably forms the heart of the debate.
- Due to its unusual nature, many institutions have undertaken extensive studies of the site. These investigating bodies include the Smithsonian Institution and the United States Geological Survey, among others. These studies presently remain ongoing.
Lonar Lake Physical Description
Not content to amaze us due to its beauty, the gorgeous Lonar Lake also remains an extremely large lake. This fact especially holds true considering its origins. That’s because this wonder of Nature has a average width measured at roughly 3,900 ft (1,200 m).
The lovely formation also has a surprising maximum measured depth of 490 ft (149 m). That alone distinguishes it from most similar features. The amazing water of remarkable Lonar Lake itself additionally remains quite impressive in its own right.
This holds as true due to a simple yet unexpected fact. That’s the fact that it contains quantities of numerous forms of sodas and salts. During periods of dry weather, when the water level recedes, locals frequently gather large quantities of soda left behind.
Two small streams, each quite lovely, also empty into the lake. These flows bear the names of Penganga and Purna, This action helps maintain its levels under normal conditions. A well of fresh water can also be found on the southern side, near the edge of the lake.
Lonar Lake Location, Formation, and Ecosystem
It bears remembering that Lonar Lake also stands out for yet another reason. In point of fact, the body of water sits in a rather remote and somewhat rugged part of the world. The fabulous site formed in what now constitutes the Maharashtra state of India.
The actual formation of the magnificent and unique spot nonetheless easily remains the most notable fact about the location, however. That’s because it actually formed as the result of a meteor strike. More precisely, the object impacted into a large deposit of basalt.
As one of only four such known, it is also the only one not found in Brazil, in South America. The surface of the lovely Lonar Lake itself, furthermore, actually sits in a surprising location. That’s because it sits roughly 449 ft (137 m) below the rim of the old impact crater.
However, the enormous crater created by the meteor strike itself has a diameter measuring about 5,900 ft (1, 800 m). Its distinctive combination of qualities has also nevertheless led to yet another astonishing feature. It seems nature worked overtime here!
That’s due to the formation of a remarkable ecosystem within its boundaries. That comprises two separate and quite distinct sections that do not interact at all. In a fascinating development, the inner section has an alkaline base, while the outer one does not.
Quite amazingly, each of these distinct systems also has its own flora and fauna. Overall, however, the site forms a haven for an astonishingly wide variety of species. These include gazelles, monitor lizards, and numerous types of migratory birds, to name a few.
Chandipur Beach Facts
- The final location selected to appear in this article about 6 Geological Wonders of India is the astounding site known as Chandipur Beach.
- The stunning location known well locally quite easily stands out from most of the other beaches around the world. This marvel of Nature easily remains among those gorgeous sites that few people outside of its immediate area know about.
- This statement holds true for several different reasons. The beach itself lies closely surrounded by a thick grouping of casuarina trees. Having these located so close to the beach itself provides the location with a highly uncommon atmosphere.
- But, without doubt, one characteristic of this magical location remains paramount. That’s the fact that the most remarkable feature of the magnificent Chandipur Beach pertains to the almost unbelievable actions of the local tides.
- This bold statement can be made because of one completely startling fact that must typically be seen to be believed. Twice each day, when the local tide goes out, it recedes a staggering distance of roughly 3.7 mi (6 km), before returning later.
- This action also takes place at a comparatively rapid pace. To the amazement of those who experience it, it’s so fast that one can actually watch it happening with the naked eye. This truly earns it a place among these 6 Geological Wonders of India.
Chandipur Beach Physical Description
One fact remains of the greatest importance when considering the fabulous location. That’s the fact that it must be pointed out that the precise dimensions of the incredible Chandipur Beach cannot be defined with certainty, due to its very nature.
This unusual statement is accurate because every time the water recedes and returns, the exact height of the water relative to the shore varies. In point of fact, this particular feature of the amazing site can actually vary quite significantly.
But, the height above sea level of the sandy portion of the astonishing beach measures roughly 10 ft (3 m) in elevation. The uppermost edge of the beach itself additionally remains lined with numerous stones, creating a natural wall marking off the area.
Of even greater interest, Chandipur Beach boasts many other natural features. These include sand dunes and rocky coasts, in addition to the delightful casuarina trees. The combination serves to make this location one of the most distinctive beaches in the world.
Chandipur Beach Location, Tourism, and Bio-Diversity
The awe-inspiring beauty and distinctiveness of the remarkable Chandipur Beach formed in an already amazing setting. It sits in a portion of the world perhaps best known for its flora and fauna. The same amazing region nevertheless also boasts much geological beauty.
Quite sadly, however, much of this naturally occurring splendor remains relatively unknown outside of the immediate area. This regrettable statistic currently exists due to the fact that the site, like the others herein, formed in what now constitutes the country of India, in Asia.
More precisely, though, the wondrous beach formed in the Baleswar District of the Indian state of Odisha. This region also consists of extensive sections of relatively unexplored coastline. The surroundings only serve to augment the beauty of the beach.
Quite unsurprisingly, given its highly unique combination of beauty and sheer astonishment, Chandipur Beach also forms a locally popular vacation spot. In point of fact, this extreme popularity extends to both tourists and the local populace as well.
Local temperatures also play a part in the verdant nature of the area in which it appears. These average a pleasant 63 – 81 F (17 -27 C) in winter, and 77 – 104 F (25 – 40 C) in the summer. Partly due to this, the region also boasts a flourishing ecosystem.
Chief among the species present here, in terms of numbers, may be the horseshoe crabs that call the site home. But, many red crabs also appear with the tides. However, the Olive Ridley Sea Turtle also uses this beach as one of its few nesting areas in the world.
6 Geological Wonders of India
We truly hope that you have thoroughly enjoyed reading and learning from this article about 6 Geological Wonders of India. It has certainly been our pleasure to compile and present it to you. This region holds countless other marvels of Nature to discover, as well.
Sadly, though, some of them find themselves facing great peril. While matters of geology aren’t vulnerable to extinction, they nonetheless can be damaged or eroded by the actions of man. It’s up to us to do all that we can to maintain them in their natural state.