Fernando de Noronha Facts
- Fernando de Noronha is a small archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean and lies roughly 220 mi (354 km) off the coast of Brazil, in South America.
- The archipelago consists of 21 islands and islets. Additionally, the principal island has an area of 7.1 sq mi (18.4 sq km). The total area of all islands and islets is about 10 sq mi (26 sq km).
- The permanent population of Fernando de Noronha is less than 3,000 individuals. Since 2001, UNESCO has listed the location as a World Heritage Site as well. This occurred due to the importance of the unique environment of this marvel of geology.
Fernando de Noronha Geology and Climate
Firstly, all components of Fernando de Noronha remain quite unique. That’s because these are the uppermost portions of an underwater mountain range. Further, the islands and islets all have a volcanic origin.
The base of this large volcanic formation also lies roughly 2,480 ft (756 m) beneath the surface of the ocean. In addition, the highest elevation of the archipelago lies at 1,060 ft (323 m).
The climate also has a primarily tropical nature. The temperature actually varies very little, either between day and night, or month to month. Additionally, it only has two seasons, rainy and dry.
Fernando de Noronha Flora and Fauna
Perhaps most notably, the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha is home to a diverse number of plant and animal species. Furthermore, many of these exist nowhere else. At least 15 endemic species of plants fit that description.
For example, the animals living only on this archipelago include three species of birds and two reptilians. But, a native rodent species once existed. However, it has now become extinct.
Finally, the islands and islets remain famous for a specific reason. That’s due to the beauty, variety, and quantity of marine life in the local waters. This include dolphins, sea turtles, and also albatrosses.