Fernando de Noronha Facts
- Fernando de Noronha is a small archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean and lies roughly 220 mi (354 km) off the coast of Brazil, in South America.
- The archipelago consists of 21 islands and islets. Additionally, the principal island has an area of 7.1 sq mi (18.4 sq km). The total area of all islands and islets is about 10 sq mi (26 sq km).
- The permanent population of Fernando de Noronha is less than 3,000 individuals. Since 2001, UNESCO has listed the location as a World Heritage Site as well, which occurred due to the importance of the unique environment of this marvel of geology.
Fernando de Noronha Geology and Climate
All components of Fernando de Noronha are uniquely the uppermost portions of an underwater mountain range. The islands and islets are all volcanic in origin.
The base of this large volcanic formation lies roughly 2,480 ft (756 m) beneath the surface of the ocean with the highest elevation of the archipelago lying at 1,060 ft (323 m).
The climate is primarily tropical in nature. The temperature actually varies very little, either between day and night, or month to month. The only seasons are rainy and dry.
Fernando de Noronha Flora and Fauna
This archipelago of Fernando de Noronha is home to a diverse number of plant and animal species that exist nowhere else. At least 15 endemic species of plants fit that description.
For example, the animals living only on Fernando de Noronha include three species of birds and two reptilians. There was once a native rodent, which has now become extinct.
The islands and islets are also famous for the beauty, variety, and quantity of marine life in the local waters. These include dolphins, sea turtles, and albatrosses.